Ready, Set, Plant! Tips for getting your garden off to a great start

Stacks of lush spring plants are hard for just about any gardener to resist!  Before buying, don’t forget to read plant labels and make sure conditions in your garden and the plant’s cultural requirements are a match. (Photo by Joe Scarlata)

Plant sales abound this time of year and whether you’ve been shopping at neighborhood  plant swaps or browsing through local nurseries — you know how energizing the experience can be. But once you arrive home,  do you ever find yourself saying, “Now what?”  If so, we’ve got you covered!  We love plants sales too, so we’ve put together a few Master Gardener “Tips of the Trade” that will have you digging in to this– the most optimistic of garden seasons–with excitement and confidence.


It’s planting time!  The frost free date in central New Jersey is on or after May 10 –so now’s the time for gardeners to get growing.


Ready or not: What to do if planting’s on pause…

If you’re NOT planning to transplant your new plants immediately,  remember to water them as needed and protect them from animals and harsh elements such as frost and wind until you are ready to plant them.

For the best results for all of your garden plants–as well as your lawn–you should know the pH and nutrient level of your soil.  To do this, have a soil test run.  You can stop by the Extension Office to purchase a soil mailer, or call the Extension Office at 609‑989-6830 for more information.

Planting  101: Steps to help your new plants thrive

The following tips apply to most newly-purchased plants.  But, be sure to check plant labels first for any variety-specific instructions.

SITE CONSIDERATIONS: Read plant labels carefully before selecting planting sites. Plants have different requirements for sun/shade, soil condition and drainage.

Individual annuals and perennials have different requirements for sun, shade, partial sun, soil quality, and drainage. When deciding what plant to put where, also consider a plant’s mature height and whether you will you be able to see and enjoy it among its garden companions. (Photo by Joe Scarlata)

Also, since plants have different growth patterns and rates of growth, consider the spread and the height of the plant at maturity.

In addition, two other factors should be considered:  visibility (planting in order for the plant to be seen and enjoyed) and accessibility (planting in order to for the plant be accessible for fertilizing, dead heading and/or pruning).

Make sure to remove weeds and debris before planting. It’s also a good idea to add some organic matter–like compost –into the soil to help new transplants thrive.  (Photo by Theodora Wang)

SOIL PREPARATION: Remove all weeds and other debris from the planting site.  Loosen soil for good root growth and mix in organic matter (compost, well rotted manure or peat moss) to amend the soil. If a recent soil test was performed, refer to the report for information regarding recommended lime and fertilizer. If no soil test has been done, fertilize with 10-10-10 at 2 lb. per 100 square feet, or follow the label directions on a fertilizer for flower or herb gardens. Spade or rototill amendments to a depth of 6-8 inches for most annuals or perennials.

The best time to install your plants is on a cloudy day, which reduces the chance of sun and/or heat stress on new transplants. (Photo by Joe Scarlata)

PLANTING: Hardy perennials, trees and shrubs can be planted immediately. (The frost-free day in central New Jersey is on or about May 10.) If tender plants– aka annuals– are threatened by frost, be prepared to cover them.

Plant at any time on a cloudy day, or early morning or late afternoon on a sunny day.  Prepare a space at least twice the size of the plant container and almost as deep. Remove the plant from the container and loosen or cut the roots slightly to encourage growth. Plant at the same depth as the plant was in the container. Gently settle soil around the roots, being careful not to leave air pockets around the roots.  Water thoroughly.

MAINTENANCE: Water early in the morning (preferable) as plant species require. Use a rain gauge to determine how much rain had fallen and adjust watering schedule accordingly.  Mulch will help maintain soil moisture, temperature and deter weeds. Mulch depth should never exceed two inches.

GARDEN HELP: For more planting information, or if you are having plant, tree or lawn problems, please call the MASTER GARDENER HELPLINE (609-989-6853), Monday through Friday from 9:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m. You can also visit our website at www.mgofmc.org for more information from the Rutgers Cooperative Extension and Barbara J. Bromley.

Looking for inspiration? Stop by Mercer County Educational Gardens which feature a variety of beautiful plants– all of which are proven to thrive in our area. (Photo by Joe Scarlata)

GARDEN INSPIRATION: Don’t forget to visit our Educational Gardens  this summer when the gardens are in their full glory, the flowers are in bloom and the butterflies are visiting.  For information about coming activities, check out our Events page.

Happy planting!


More info:

Basics of Flower Gardening

Planting High Visibility Flower Beds

10+ Most Common Gardening Mistakes

 

Master Gardener Plant Expo 2017


This year’s sale day is sure to be fun for seasoned gardeners and novice gardeners alike!

The plant sale will feature the ever-popular Rutgers Master Gardener home-grown perennials, trees and shrubs and a garden market of plant material sold by selected top-notch nurseries from New Jersey and Pennsylvania.

This is a unique opportunity to talk with vendors and purchase a wide assortment of native plants, woody ornamentals, perennials, herbs, annuals and tropical plants. This year we will welcome a new local vendor featuring certified organic plants. Tomatoes, tomatoes, tomatoes (Rutgers varieties and heirlooms) as well as many hot pepper varieties will be in abundance.

Mercer County Horticulturist Barbara J. Bromley will be answering gardening questions and Rutgers Master Gardeners will be on hand to help choose the right plant for the right place.

Click here for a scalable map and location guide:

2017 Plant Expo Map

Plan to come early for best selection and stay to enjoy every aspect of Expo. This event will be held rain or shine and there is plenty of free parking. Credit cards, personal checks and cash are accepted at the sale.

Check out some of this year’s selections below: 


Home-Grown Plants

Master Gardener-grown plants are the most popular part of Plant Expo!

People line up very early to get the best selection of home-grown perennials, trees and shrubs and return year after year to check out the selection. Whether you have a shade garden or a sunny butterfly garden, you can find something of interest in the Home-Grown area. Of course, there is no guarantee that every variety will be available on sale day but there will be a wide assortment of plants.

Click below for list of home-grown plants for this year’s sale:

2017 Plant Expo Home-Grown Plant Selections


Jersey Tomatoes!

Home-grown tomatoes and peppers will be in abundance, including the popular Rutgers tomato varieties, Rutgers, Ramapo, Moreton, Rutgers 250, KC-146 and Rutgers 39. Rutgers Master Gardener Bruce Young has started the tomatoes and peppers from seed for the sale and has potted up over 1,000 tomatoes. Along with the Rutgers varieties of tomatoes there will be lots heirloom varieties. Patio, cherry, and plum, to name a few types, will be available for purchase. Popular and some different Hot pepper varieties will be offered.

Click below for list of tomatoes and peppers being grown for this year’s sale:

2017 Plant Expo Tomatoes 

2017 Plant Expo Peppers

We will try hard to have each variety listed available on sale day but there are no guarantees!


Select Local Plant Vendors

Our hand-picked plant purveyors offer a variety of plants uniquely suited for local gardens.    

This is a unique opportunity to talk with vendors and purchase a wide assortment of native plants, woody ornamentals, perennials, herbs, annuals and tropical plants. This year we will welcome a new local vendor featuring certified organic plants.

To view a list of our select group of local plant purveyors, click here: 

2017 Plant Expo Vendors


Second-Hand Sale 


The ever popular Second-Hand Sale of garden-related items will be back this year. Pots galore, baskets and books to name a few, will definitely be available this year.  There are always a few surprises and you really never know what treasure you might find.


Bugs Rule: Insects you actually WANT in your garden

What better way to experience the wonder of bugs than to get out into nature and experience them for yourself?

What better way to discover the intriguing world of bugs than to head out there and experience them for yourself? (Photo by Betty Scarlata)


Now’s a great time to celebrate all the flying, hopping, swimming, creeping, crawling, and utterly fascinating insects that share our world…


What’s the buzz? If you are among those who think bugs are as at best annoyances and at worst things to be eradicated from your yard, you may be surprised to learn that insects of all sorts play a huge role in our world.  In fact, there are more types of insects on our planet than any other kind of animal!  And while a small percentage are considered harmful to humans or property, the vast majority of insects are highly beneficial to people, gardens and the environment at large.

More than just beautiful, butterflies help pollinate flowers and their caterpillars provide food for lots of other animals. (Photo by ____)

More than just beautiful, butterflies help pollinate flowers and their caterpillars provide food for lots of other animals. (Photo by David Byers)

Bugs with benefits: While most people know that food crops depend heavily on bees, butterflies and other insects for pollination, it may come as a surprise that when it comes to controlling backyard pests and plant diseases, insects themselves can provide the best means of control.

Certain types of “beneficial” insects – namely those that that feed on other more harmful bugs—actually offer a safer and more effective approach to pest management.  They are not only highly effective at reducing the infestation levels of harmful pests, but a healthy population of  “good bugs” can also save money by reducing the need for costly (and toxic) pesticides. It’s a garden win-win.

For a list of some of the top beneficials in our area, see our fact sheet on BENEFICIAL INSECTS.

Putting bugs to work for you:  Beneficial insects can be be found just about anywhere.  The trick to taking advantage beneficials, is getting a sufficient number of them to hang around long enough to keep pest species in check. Turns out that beneficials will only stay on your property if they find enough harmful insects to feed upon.  So you can forget about using traditional chemical controls. Pesticide sprays wipe out both beneficial insects and their food source, which can lead to an even worse  situation, since it often leads to a rebound in the original pest population.

Yarrow is just one of the flowers that can attract beneficials to your yard. (Photo by ___)

Yarrow is just one of the flowers that can attract beneficials to your yard.

Finding fast food: Another key to getting beneficial insects to set up shop in your yard is providing food for all stages of their lifecycle.  For most full grown insects, this means flowers.

When deciding what to plant, it’s a good idea to select a wide variety of flowers that provide constant bloom from spring through fall. Pollen and nectar from wildflowers are especially attractive to beneficial insects and encourage them to lay their eggs nearby. Some particular favorites of beneficial insects are: daisy, black-eyed Susan, sunflower, ornamental goldenrod, yarrow, aster, and Queen Anne’s lace.

Herbs such as parsley, dill, fennel, catnip, spearmint, and thyme also attract beneficials.  For a list of other plants that are favorites of beneficial insects, see Attracting Beneficials.

Photo 2Herb Gardens like this one at Mercer Educational Gardens are magnets for beneficial insects offering food, shelter and a place to raise young. (Photo by ____)

Herb gardens, like the one above at Mercer Educational Gardens, are magnets for beneficial insects offering food, shelter and a place to raise their young. (Photo by Joe Scarlata)

Looking for inspiration? Any garden type or style can become a “good bug” hub. If you’re wondering how to put it all together where you live, try visiting a few insect-friendly gardens like the ones at Mercer Educational Gardens.   All of the seven demonstration gardens there — Annual, Butterfly, Cottage, Herb, Native Plant, Perennial and Weed ID– are pesticide free and use Responsible Gardening Principles that support beneficial insects.

Mercer Educational Gardens is an award-winning garden that features seven display gardens that all adhere to principles of responsible gardening and pest management.

Mercer Educational Gardens is an award-winning site that features seven display gardens, all of which adhere to principles of responsible gardening and pest management. (Photo by Joe Scarlata)

A sheltered life: Beneficial insects need protection during the warm months and shelter during the winter. Be sure there is sufficient vegetation nearby (woods, weeds, mulch) to keep good bugs safe.  Hedges and foundation plantings also provide great protection for beneficials. Even garden pathways and borders play an important refuge role by offering soil-dwelling insects–like digger wasps–safe places to raise their young. Although digger wasps may look intimidating, they are nonaggressive and definitely do more good than harm.  For instance, the adult wasps pollinate plants by feeding on flower nectar, females prey on grasshoppers and similar pests that might otherwise cause a lot of damage to vegetable and ornamental plants, and by digging holes in the ground, digger wasps help to aerate the soil and improve drainage.

Great golden digger wasps look dangerous but they are beneficial insects that help keep garden pests in check. (Photo by Lan-Jen Tsai)

Great golden digger wasps look dangerous, but  are beneficial insects that help keep garden pests in check. (Photo by Lan-Jen Tsai)

Friend or Foe? Although most home landscapes support a wide assortment of bugs, it’s important for gardeners to be able to distinguish the “good guys” from the “bad guys.”  Being able to identify what that thing buzzing or creeping through the backyard actually is, can be key to getting the full benefit from beneficials.

What the heck is that?! Teaching kids about insects and the many ways bugs benefit us can help them understand that not all insects are scary or icky.

What the heck is that?! Learning to determine which insects are garden pests and which are beneficials is key to creating a balanced backyard ecosystem.  (Photo by David Byers)

When you come across an insect you’d like to  identify, you can start by consulting a local field guide to insects or call the Master Gardener Helpline.

With a trusty field guide in one hand and the insect in quesiton in another, naturalists solve the puzzle of insect identification. (Photo by___)

With a trusty field guide in one hand and mystery insect in another, naturalists solve the puzzle of insect identification. (Photo by David Byers)

Master Gardeners can answer all kinds of questions about  insects–beneficial and otherwise— and can even tell you the key elements to look at when trying to figure out what type of  insect a specimen is.

If you are able to safely capture your mystery bug, you can also bring it by the Rutgers Cooperative Extension office, and talk to a Master Gardener in person.

Barbara J. Bromley, Mercer County Horticulturalist fields questions about bugs at a recent Insect Festival. (Photo by Betty Scarlata)

Barbara J. Bromley, Mercer County Horticulturalist, fields questions about bugs at a recent Insect Festival. (Photo by Betty Scarlata)

Kids love bugs! Parents who are considering adding beneficial insects to their yards, should be sure to include the kids in the experience.  Children, especially younger ones, seem naturally fascinated with all sorts of creepy crawlers.  By encouraging them to take a closer look at insects– as opposed to stepping on them or just saying “Yuck!” — can help kids develop a deeper appreciation for insects and how they benefit the environment.  And while not every kid is born a bug lover, showing them that not all insects are harmful, can at least give them a better appreciation for the role insects play in the world we share.

Bugs have a lot to teach us, and can develop important science skill like observation, categorization and identification. (Photo by ___)

Bugs have a lot to teach us, and can help kids develop important science skills like observation, categorization and identification. (Photo by Betty Scarlata)

Taking part in bug-centric events like Insect Festival can also help fuel kids’ natural curiosity.  Activities like tagging Monarchs can be an unforgettable experience for kids and can broaden their knowledge of a wide array of subjects –from the stages of insect metamorphosis—to geography, as they learn the route Monarchs travel on their annual migration to Mexico.

A newly emerged monarch butterfly tagged and ready to set off on it’s winter migration to Mexico. (Photo by ___)

A newly emerged monarch butterfly tagged and ready to set off on it’s winter migration to Mexico.
(Photo by David Byers)

Experiences that feed kid’s curiosity about insects at a young age can inspire a lifelong passion for the natural world.

 


Teaching kids about the many ways bugs benefit us can help them understand that not all insects are scary or icky.


Focus on fun.

Not every insect-related activity has to be focused on education.  Make sure to include insect activities that are purely for fun –like crafts, scavenger hunts and storybooks.

Bugs can be fun! Crafty little cardboard bees keep insect activities from becoming too serious. (Photo by____)

Bugs can be fun! Crafts like these little cardboard bees can keep insect activities from becoming too serious. (Photo by Eunice Wilkinson)

Anything that inspires kids (of any age) to go outside and explore the strange, incredible, and often beautiful insects of New Jersey is a big win for bugs, people and the planet.

Insects are amazing creatures and can inspire kids--of all ages-- to unplug and and go outside and explore. Photo by ____

Insects are amazing creatures and can inspire kids–of all ages– to unplug,  go outside, and explore. (Photo by  Betty Scarlata) 


References:

Attracting Beneficials

Beneficial Insects

Natural Pest Control

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