Pest Alert: What You Need to Know About the Emerald Ash Borer

Emerald Ash Borer adult (Photo State of NJ Department of Agriculture)

The exotic emerald ash borer (EAB) has been killing ash trees across North America. Native to China, eastern Russia, Japan, and Korea, it was first discovered near Detroit in 2002 and has since spread to 25 states, including New Jersey.

Ash in New Jersey Facts

• Forests contain 24.7 million ash trees

• 24% of all forested land contains ash

• Ash is found in forests throughout the state, but concentrated in northern New Jersey

• Ash has been commonly planted as a street and landscape tree throughout the state

EAB: Deadly Damage to Millions of Trees

This metallic green insect infests and kills ash trees—all ash species are susceptible, with the exception of mountain ash. EAB larvae feed on the inner bark and disrupt the movement of water and nutrients, essentially girdling the tree. This insect often infests the upper branches of the tree first and may affect branches as small as 1” in diameter. It takes 2-4 years for infested trees to die, but mortality is imminent.

Since its discovery in North America, EAB has spread rapidly. It occurs in 25 states and 2 Canadian provinces. It was first discovered in NJ in 2014. The greatest impact will be for community trees and privately owned trees. The beetles are strong fliers, and good at finding ash trees. When the beetle first arrived in Maryland, the infested area expanded about ½ mile per year. Often people unintentionally spread this insect when they move firewood from an infested area to a new location. Beetles and larvae also hitchhike to a new area in nursery trees and saw logs.

Is your tree an ash? Ash trees have compound leaves with five, seven, nine or 11 leaflets. See additional links at the end of this post to assist in determining if a tree is an ash, or contact your local Rutgers Cooperative Extension office. (Photo State of NJ Department of Agriculture)

 

What to Look for: Signs and Symptoms

Often the first sign that a tree is infested is woodpecker damage. When feeding on EAB, woodpeckers scrape off outer bark, leaving smooth, light colored patches.

Several woodpecker species feed on EAB larvae. Heavy woodpecker damage on ash trees may be a sign of infestation. (Photo New Jersey EAB Task Force)

Under the bark of an infested tree, you can often see S-shaped galleries weaving back and forth on the surface of the wood.

Feeding EAB larvae leave serpentine galleries across the woodgrain. (Photo New Jersey EAB Task Force)

The beetles also leave 1/8” D-shaped exit holes. Between May and August, you may find the ½” long metallic green adult beetles which have a copper color abdomen under the wing covers.  For additional symptoms of EAB infestation, see  Signs and Symptoms of the Emerald Ash Borer

Adults leave D-shaped exit holes in the bark when they emerge in the spring. (Photo New Jersey EAB Task Force)

Managing Your Ash Trees

EAB is in New Jersey. Plan for EAB now if you have ash. Know what’s at risk: how much ash you have, its size and quality, and where it’s located. Consider the ecological, aesthetic, and economic value of your ash, your tolerance of risk, and your objectives for ownership.  Use the assessment tool below to determine your best course of action:

Assess-ash-trees-chart

Forest Management

If your land is enrolled in Farmland Assessment or the Forest Stewardship Programs, you must follow your approved forest management plan or an approved amendment. Contact your consulting forester if you wish to change your planned activities, treatment schedule, or management objectives. Remember that the state forester needs to approve any changes before the management activity begins.

With an approved forest management plan that addresses EAB, you can salvage and restore ash in riparian areas when they follow the prescribed Best Management Practices. Reassess your plan if EAB is detected in or near your county. To date, EAB has been found in Somerset, Mercer and Burlington Counties. The threat of imminent tree mortality increases when EAB is within 10 miles of your property.

Take Action: What You Can Do

EAB adults emerging from D-shaped holes in the bark. (Photo by Debbie Miller)

Identify ash trees. Ash species have opposite branches and leaves and a compound leaf with 5-11 leaflets. The bark has a unique diamond-shaped ridge bark on older trees, but younger trees may have smoother bark.
Monitor your ash trees for EAB, you will know when the risk of mortality becomes urgent. Look for the dying branches at the top of the tree, woodpecker damage, galleries under the bark, D-shaped holes, green adult beetle, and sprouting.

Spread the message, “Don’t Move Firewood.” Visitors who bring infested firewood to second homes or campgrounds near you put your trees at risk. Talk with neighbors and campground owners in your community.

Damaging EAB larvae are creamy white and legless.

Report EAB sightings to the NJ Department of Agriculture. Collect and/or photograph any suspect insects and larvae. Note that several insects look similar to the EAB.


Over the next few years, 99% of NJ ash trees will die due to emerald ash borer infestations


Where to Get More Information

NJ residents are encouraged to visit the New Jersey Emerald Ash Borer websitewww.emeraldashborer.nj.gov where they can find resources on how to protect their ash trees and what to do with dead or dying trees.

Additional information on EAB:

Bugs Rule: Insects you actually WANT in your garden

What better way to experience the wonder of bugs than to get out into nature and experience them for yourself?

What better way to discover the intriguing world of bugs than to head out there and experience them for yourself? (Photo by Betty Scarlata)


Now’s a great time to celebrate all the flying, hopping, swimming, creeping, crawling, and utterly fascinating insects that share our world…


What’s the buzz? If you are among those who think bugs are as at best annoyances and at worst things to be eradicated from your yard, you may be surprised to learn that insects of all sorts play a huge role in our world.  In fact, there are more types of insects on our planet than any other kind of animal!  And while a small percentage are considered harmful to humans or property, the vast majority of insects are highly beneficial to people, gardens and the environment at large.

More than just beautiful, butterflies help pollinate flowers and their caterpillars provide food for lots of other animals. (Photo by ____)

More than just beautiful, butterflies help pollinate flowers and their caterpillars provide food for lots of other animals. (Photo by David Byers)

Bugs with benefits: While most people know that food crops depend heavily on bees, butterflies and other insects for pollination, it may come as a surprise that when it comes to controlling backyard pests and plant diseases, insects themselves can provide the best means of control.

Certain types of “beneficial” insects – namely those that that feed on other more harmful bugs—actually offer a safer and more effective approach to pest management.  They are not only highly effective at reducing the infestation levels of harmful pests, but a healthy population of  “good bugs” can also save money by reducing the need for costly (and toxic) pesticides. It’s a garden win-win.

For a list of some of the top beneficials in our area, see our fact sheet on BENEFICIAL INSECTS.

Putting bugs to work for you:  Beneficial insects can be be found just about anywhere.  The trick to taking advantage beneficials, is getting a sufficient number of them to hang around long enough to keep pest species in check. Turns out that beneficials will only stay on your property if they find enough harmful insects to feed upon.  So you can forget about using traditional chemical controls. Pesticide sprays wipe out both beneficial insects and their food source, which can lead to an even worse  situation, since it often leads to a rebound in the original pest population.

Yarrow is just one of the flowers that can attract beneficials to your yard. (Photo by ___)

Yarrow is just one of the flowers that can attract beneficials to your yard.

Finding fast food: Another key to getting beneficial insects to set up shop in your yard is providing food for all stages of their lifecycle.  For most full grown insects, this means flowers.

When deciding what to plant, it’s a good idea to select a wide variety of flowers that provide constant bloom from spring through fall. Pollen and nectar from wildflowers are especially attractive to beneficial insects and encourage them to lay their eggs nearby. Some particular favorites of beneficial insects are: daisy, black-eyed Susan, sunflower, ornamental goldenrod, yarrow, aster, and Queen Anne’s lace.

Herbs such as parsley, dill, fennel, catnip, spearmint, and thyme also attract beneficials.  For a list of other plants that are favorites of beneficial insects, see Attracting Beneficials.

Photo 2Herb Gardens like this one at Mercer Educational Gardens are magnets for beneficial insects offering food, shelter and a place to raise young. (Photo by ____)

Herb gardens, like the one above at Mercer Educational Gardens, are magnets for beneficial insects offering food, shelter and a place to raise their young. (Photo by Joe Scarlata)

Looking for inspiration? Any garden type or style can become a “good bug” hub. If you’re wondering how to put it all together where you live, try visiting a few insect-friendly gardens like the ones at Mercer Educational Gardens.   All of the seven demonstration gardens there — Annual, Butterfly, Cottage, Herb, Native Plant, Perennial and Weed ID– are pesticide free and use Responsible Gardening Principles that support beneficial insects.

Mercer Educational Gardens is an award-winning garden that features seven display gardens that all adhere to principles of responsible gardening and pest management.

Mercer Educational Gardens is an award-winning site that features seven display gardens, all of which adhere to principles of responsible gardening and pest management. (Photo by Joe Scarlata)

A sheltered life: Beneficial insects need protection during the warm months and shelter during the winter. Be sure there is sufficient vegetation nearby (woods, weeds, mulch) to keep good bugs safe.  Hedges and foundation plantings also provide great protection for beneficials. Even garden pathways and borders play an important refuge role by offering soil-dwelling insects–like digger wasps–safe places to raise their young. Although digger wasps may look intimidating, they are nonaggressive and definitely do more good than harm.  For instance, the adult wasps pollinate plants by feeding on flower nectar, females prey on grasshoppers and similar pests that might otherwise cause a lot of damage to vegetable and ornamental plants, and by digging holes in the ground, digger wasps help to aerate the soil and improve drainage.

Great golden digger wasps look dangerous but they are beneficial insects that help keep garden pests in check. (Photo by Lan-Jen Tsai)

Great golden digger wasps look dangerous, but  are beneficial insects that help keep garden pests in check. (Photo by Lan-Jen Tsai)

Friend or Foe? Although most home landscapes support a wide assortment of bugs, it’s important for gardeners to be able to distinguish the “good guys” from the “bad guys.”  Being able to identify what that thing buzzing or creeping through the backyard actually is, can be key to getting the full benefit from beneficials.

What the heck is that?! Teaching kids about insects and the many ways bugs benefit us can help them understand that not all insects are scary or icky.

What the heck is that?! Learning to determine which insects are garden pests and which are beneficials is key to creating a balanced backyard ecosystem.  (Photo by David Byers)

When you come across an insect you’d like to  identify, you can start by consulting a local field guide to insects or call the Master Gardener Helpline.

With a trusty field guide in one hand and the insect in quesiton in another, naturalists solve the puzzle of insect identification. (Photo by___)

With a trusty field guide in one hand and mystery insect in another, naturalists solve the puzzle of insect identification. (Photo by David Byers)

Master Gardeners can answer all kinds of questions about  insects–beneficial and otherwise— and can even tell you the key elements to look at when trying to figure out what type of  insect a specimen is.

If you are able to safely capture your mystery bug, you can also bring it by the Rutgers Cooperative Extension office, and talk to a Master Gardener in person.

Barbara J. Bromley, Mercer County Horticulturalist fields questions about bugs at a recent Insect Festival. (Photo by Betty Scarlata)

Barbara J. Bromley, Mercer County Horticulturalist, fields questions about bugs at a recent Insect Festival. (Photo by Betty Scarlata)

Kids love bugs! Parents who are considering adding beneficial insects to their yards, should be sure to include the kids in the experience.  Children, especially younger ones, seem naturally fascinated with all sorts of creepy crawlers.  By encouraging them to take a closer look at insects– as opposed to stepping on them or just saying “Yuck!” — can help kids develop a deeper appreciation for insects and how they benefit the environment.  And while not every kid is born a bug lover, showing them that not all insects are harmful, can at least give them a better appreciation for the role insects play in the world we share.

Bugs have a lot to teach us, and can develop important science skill like observation, categorization and identification. (Photo by ___)

Bugs have a lot to teach us, and can help kids develop important science skills like observation, categorization and identification. (Photo by Betty Scarlata)

Taking part in bug-centric events like Insect Festival can also help fuel kids’ natural curiosity.  Activities like tagging Monarchs can be an unforgettable experience for kids and can broaden their knowledge of a wide array of subjects –from the stages of insect metamorphosis—to geography, as they learn the route Monarchs travel on their annual migration to Mexico.

A newly emerged monarch butterfly tagged and ready to set off on it’s winter migration to Mexico. (Photo by ___)

A newly emerged monarch butterfly tagged and ready to set off on it’s winter migration to Mexico.
(Photo by David Byers)

Experiences that feed kid’s curiosity about insects at a young age can inspire a lifelong passion for the natural world.

 


Teaching kids about the many ways bugs benefit us can help them understand that not all insects are scary or icky.


Focus on fun.

Not every insect-related activity has to be focused on education.  Make sure to include insect activities that are purely for fun –like crafts, scavenger hunts and storybooks.

Bugs can be fun! Crafty little cardboard bees keep insect activities from becoming too serious. (Photo by____)

Bugs can be fun! Crafts like these little cardboard bees can keep insect activities from becoming too serious. (Photo by Eunice Wilkinson)

Anything that inspires kids (of any age) to go outside and explore the strange, incredible, and often beautiful insects of New Jersey is a big win for bugs, people and the planet.

Insects are amazing creatures and can inspire kids--of all ages-- to unplug and and go outside and explore. Photo by ____

Insects are amazing creatures and can inspire kids–of all ages– to unplug,  go outside, and explore. (Photo by  Betty Scarlata) 


References:

Attracting Beneficials

Beneficial Insects

Natural Pest Control

Continue Reading →

The Beauty of Bees: Why you should be glad your yard is always so full of bees

bee on dahlia

Photo by Maureen Amter

When working in your garden, do you ever stop to notice bees settling on your flowers? Totally absorbed in the activity, they light atop flowers and vegetables alike. Reaching into the nectar area of each blossom, they emerge with colorful yellow pollen grains attached to their fuzzy hind legs.

Small as they may seem, bees are a “keystone species,” and have a big impact in the natural order of things, with lots of other animal species depending on them for life.

Their presence and well-being say a lot about the health of your garden – and the larger environment as well.

So if you find that your garden is buzzing with life, pat yourself on the back.  That means you are doing a lot of things right!

Gardeners who find their plots humming with bees seem to share a lot of the same pollinator promoting practices–whether they are aware of it or not.   See how many of these garden golden rules you employ …and let the buzzing begin:

  • Say Nay to the Spray:  Protect pollinators by avoiding the use of insecticides in your yard and asking whether nursery-bought plants have been treated with insecticides before you purchase them. If spraying is necessary it is best to do so after dark.  Pollinators are typically not foraging at night.  It is also important to not spray flowering plants, including weeds.

    A carpenter bee on our native milkweed.  There are many varieties of milkweed that thrive in our area.  In addition to being a favorite nectar source for bees, milkweeds are important to other pollinators too, like Monarch butterflies.

  • Go Wild and Plant Natives:  Wildflowers and other native plants are adapted to our local conditions and provide the best sources of nectar and pollen for native bees.   [To learn more about which plants are best for native bees see: Blooms for Bees: How to Provide Pollen and Nectar Sources ]
  • Bumble bee on lupine flowers. (Photo by Lan-Jen Tsai)

    Bumble bee on lupine flowers. (Photo by Lan-Jen Tsai)

    Think Long Term:  Be sure to choose a variety of plants with different bloom times to make sure bees have enough food throughout the seasons.

  • Home Sweet Habitat: Gardens that are good for bees also tend to offer good nesting sites for bees.  Some native bees are ground bees and nest in open ground or bare spots at the base of trees. So  leaving some areas like this undisturbed will help bees thrive.
Stacks of reeds and bamboo stalks make a cosy bee shelter for wood nesting bees.

Stacks of reeds and bamboo stalks make a cosy bee shelter for wood nesting bees.

You can build a bee nest for your yard by tying together 10-20 bamboo or reed stems (or even paper straws) with one end closed (6-8” long.) 
Gather them into a bundle and hang in a protected area about 4 feet off the ground.   Install bee houses close to sources of nectar and pollen

  • Bold is Better: When it comes to flowers, big swaths of bright  blossoms make it easier it is for bees to find the nectar and pollen they need.  In addition to broad swaths of color, bees are also attracted to certain flower shapes.  In fact, some flowers even contain “nectar guides” which are a type of veining or color pattern on their petals that guide insects to the nectar reward. 
  •  Worried about stings? Gayle Henkin, Rutgers Master Gardener in Mercer County, stresses that native bees are different in many ways from wasps and imported European honey bees. She points out that most native bees are not likely to sting and far from being feared, should be welcomed into our gardens.  

Flying under the radar:  Compare the size of a non-native honey bee to the tiny sweat bees fluttering around the edges of the flower.  (Photo by Maureen Amter)

 More Information, see…

Blooms for Bees: How to Provide Pollen and Nectar Sources

ATTRACTING BENEFICIALS Barbara J. Bromley, Mercer Co. Horticulturist

CARPENTER BEES, Barbara J. Bromley, Mercer County Horticulturist

Bees and Wasps Fact Sheet 

Incorporating Native Plants in Your Residential Landscape